In practice, a client–server database system generally refers to a of personal computers (PCs).
systems must be capable of handling thousands of orders placed at the same time.
In the data model the database is represented as a group of related tables.
The consists of the memory components of Oracle and various background processes.
The overall design of the database is called the schema.
level describes what data are actually stored in the database.
Each transactional table handler implements its own to handle all locking and concurrency needs.
Data independence is usually considered from points of view.
The translates the various DML statements into low-level file system commands.
data independence implies that application programs need not be changed if fields are added to an existing record.
The is used to interpret the online user's query and convert it into an efficient series of operations.
DML requires a user to specify what data is needed and how to get it.
A significant disadvantage of the DBMS system is .
The set of permissible values for each attribute is called the for that attribute.
A particular occurrence of an entity is called an entity .
Any redundancies that exist in the DBMS are controlled and the system ensures that these multiple copies are .
Logical data independence is more to achieve than physical independence.
were among the first to use databases in a geographically distributed manner.
A tuple is an set of values.
Each tuple in a relation must be ; that is, there can be no duplicates.
DML is a language that enables users to access or manipulate as organized by the appropriate .
In the Primitive data models approach, objects are represented by structures grouped in file-structures.
The DBA grants different types of for data access to the various users of the database.
The database administrator is the focus of the control.
The highest level of abstraction as seen by a user is called view.
data independence allows changes in the physical storage devices.
Data is of importance to an organization and may be confidential.
The is also responsible for defining procedures to recover the database from failures.
The machines came along and let users interact directly with databases.
The MySQL architecture consists of primary subsystems.
The E-R data model is based on a perception of the real world that consists of a set of basic objects called .
A data dictionary is implemented as a database so that users can query its content by either interactive or processing.
Transaction subsystem acts as the link between the and the rules and interface subsystems.
The DBA uses the in every phase of a database life cycle.
The consists of physical files and memory components.
The DDL compiler converts the data definition statements into a set of .
Object DBMSs add database functionality to programming languages.
In a hierarchical database the parent-child relationship .
is a set of principles concerned with determining which states are valid for a database.
In general, database system supports one physical schema, one conceptual schema and several .
In ICT, the subsystem is responsible for managing interaction with the end-user.
In relational integrity constraints, there are main types of constraints.
There are basic notions that the E-R data model employs.
Client–server is a software architecture in which two processes interact as superior and .
The decomposes the SQL commands it receives from calling programs into a form that can be understood by the MySQL engine.
Attributes are properties used to describe an .
The subsystem manages the application logic in terms of a defined model of business rules.
The popularity of the network data model coincided with the popularity of the data model.
A major benefit of Object Oriented data model approach is the of the application.
In the data storage mechanism must be transparent to the users who purchase the application.
Web accesses may be stored in a .
The interfaces with the operating system (OS) to write data to the disk efficiently.
A single attribute or combination of attributes whose values uniquely identify the of the relation.
converts DML statement embedded in an application program to normal procedure calls in the host language.
Database management systems provide a facility known as the , which can be used to define the conceptual schema.
If a relation has several candidate keys, one is chosen arbitrarily to be the key.
In one-to-many relationships, an entity in A is associated with any number of entities in B. An entity in B, however, can be associated with at most entity in A.
means that the data contained in the database is both accurate and consistent.
In database is used for keeping records of calls made, generating monthly bills, maintaining balances
The buffer manager subsystem handles all memory management issues between requests for data by the and the Storage Manager.
Oracle 9i Database product is made up main components.
An entity set is a set of entities of the same type that share the same properties or .
There is only conceptual schema per database.
Data modelling is preceded by and analysis.
An entity in A is associated with at most one entity in B, and an entity in B is associated with at most one entity in A, this type of relationship is .
An is a “thing” or object in the real world that is distinguishable from all other objects.
The is one part of the conceptual design process.
The relational model is based on its accuracy and usefulness have a basis in mathematics.
The hierarchical data model organizes data in a structure.
Relational/SQL data is to query than hierarchical, CODASYL, or some other model.
The physical database is the data that is stored on storage devices
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